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02 23

诉讼离婚和协议离婚有什么区别吗

  • 发布日期: 2019-02-23

一、诉讼离婚和协议离婚有什么区别吗
 
What is the difference between litigation divorce and agreement divorce?
 
 
 
1、程序的区别。具备自愿离婚的双方当事人,持有关证件,到民政婚姻登记处去办理协议,也可以双方一同到人民法院办理协议,也可以在离婚诉讼中,经法院主持调解时达成一致协议。不同的是在民政部门发的是离婚证,而法院发的是调解书,法院的调解书就等于“离婚证”不必去民政部门再领离婚证。离婚只有民政部门和人民法院办理离婚手续,其他单位只能调和不能调离;
 
1. The difference of procedure. The parties who have voluntary divorce shall, with relevant documents, go to the civil marriage registration office to handle the agreement. They may also go to the People's Court to handle the agreement together. They may also reach an agreement in divorce proceedings when mediated by the court. The difference is that divorce certificates are issued by civil affairs departments, while mediation letters are issued by courts. The mediation letters of courts are equivalent to "divorce certificates" without having to go to civil affairs departments to obtain divorce certificates. Divorce can only be handled by civil affairs departments and people's courts, while other units can only reconcile and not transfer.
 
 
 
2、性质的区别。离婚协议的内容看,包括三个主要内容,即自愿离婚、子女抚养、财产及债务处理等。其中自愿离婚即双方自愿解除婚姻关系;子女抚养涉及当事人一方行使抚养权,另一方支付抚养费,包括子女的生活费、教育费和医疗费等费用。还包括未直接抚养小孩一方探视权及保障等内容;财产及债务处理则主要包括夫妻关系存续期间的共同财产如何分割,共同债务如何清偿等。离婚协议是一种混合合同的性质。但离婚协议书必须是书面形式,不能以口头形式及书面形式的信件、数据电文和电子邮件等,我国不承认口头离婚协议。这是与民商事合同可以采用书面形式、口头形式和其他形式的区别;离婚协议的离婚部分是不可变更、撤销这又与民商事合同,可以变更、撤销相区别。
 
2. Differences in nature. The content of divorce agreement includes three main contents: voluntary divorce, child support, property and debt disposal. Among them, voluntary divorce refers to the voluntary dissolution of the marriage relationship between the two parties; child support involves the exercise of the right of maintenance by one party and the payment of maintenance fees by the other party, including the cost of living, education and medical expenses of the children. It also includes the right of visitation and protection of one party who does not directly raise a child, and the disposal of property and debt mainly includes how to divide the common property during the period of marital relationship and how to pay off the common debt. Divorce agreement is a kind of mixed contract. However, the divorce agreement must be in written form, not in oral or written form of letters, data messages and e-mails, etc. Our country does not recognize oral divorce agreement. This is different from civil and commercial contracts in written form, oral form and other forms; the divorce part of the divorce agreement is irrevocable and revocable, which is different from civil and commercial contracts, which can be changed and revoked.
 
 
 
3、效力的区别。登记离婚协议与诉讼离婚协议有同样的法律效力;涉及人身关系都不能直接执行;登记离婚协议与诉讼离婚协议的债务,不能对抗第债权人,婚姻法解释二第25条,即“当事人的离婚协议或人民法院的判决书、裁定书、调解书已经对夫妻财产分割问题作出处理的债权人仍有权就夫妻共同债务向男女双方主张的权利。”登记离婚协议自双方签字之日起,子女及财产关系部分即时生效,离婚部分,经民政部门发给离婚证时生效;而诉讼离婚协议自双方签字之时起,离婚、子女及财产关系即时生效;登记离婚协议的财产关系,不能以一方不按照登记离婚协议的内容履行义务,直接申请人民法院强制执行,而需要通过人民法院确认后,方能申请人民法院强制执行;而诉讼离婚协议的财产关系,一但履行期限一过,当事人可以直接向人民法院申请强制执行。登记离婚协议与诉讼离婚协议都不得上诉,不得申诉。
 
3. The difference of effectiveness. Registration of divorce agreements and litigation divorce agreements have the same legal effect; personal relations can not be directly enforced; the debt of registration of divorce agreements and litigation divorce agreements can not confront the first creditor. Article 25 of Marriage Law Interpretation 2, namely, "the parties'divorce agreement or the people's court's judgment, ruling, mediation statement has dealt with the division of marital property issue of creditors. It still has the right to claim the joint debts of husband and wife to both men and women. The registration divorce agreement shall take effect immediately from the date of signature by both parties, and the divorce part shall take effect upon the issuance of the divorce certificate by the civil affairs department; and the divorce, children and property relationship shall take effect immediately after the signature of the litigation divorce agreement by both parties; the property relationship of the registration divorce Agreement shall not be directly applied for by one party without fulfilling its obligations in accordance with the content of the registration divorce agreement. The people's court can apply to the people's court for compulsory execution only after it has been confirmed by the people's court. However, once the time limit for execution of the property relationship of the divorce agreement in litigation has passed, the parties concerned can directly apply to the people's court for compulsory execution. Neither the registered divorce agreement nor the litigation divorce agreement can be appealed or appealed.
 
 
 
二、协议不成怎么提起离婚诉讼
 
2. How to initiate divorce proceedings if the agreement is not reached
 
 
 
1、协议不成也不能提起离婚诉讼的情况:
 
1. Where an agreement fails and divorce proceedings cannot be instituted:
 
 
 
(1)男方不得提出离婚的情形:
 
(1) The circumstances in which a man may not file for divorce:
 
 
 
①女方在怀孕期间;
 
(1) The woman is pregnant;
 
 
 
②女方在分娩后一年内;
 
(2) Within one year after delivery;
 
 
 
③女方中止妊娠后六个月内。
 
(3) Within six months after termination of pregnancy.
 
 
 
前述情形如果是女方提出离婚的,或人民法院认为确有必要受理男方离婚请求的,不在此限。“确有必要”的情形比如男方认为孩子不是自己的孩子。具体的“确有必要受理男方离婚请求的”,可以参看审判实践,具体审判根据当事人的具体情况而定。
 
In the case of divorce filed by the woman or if the people's court deems it necessary to accept the divorce request of the man, this shall not be limited. "It's really necessary" situations, such as when the man thinks that the child is not his own child. Specific "if it is really necessary to accept a man's divorce request", can refer to the trial practice, the specific trial depends on the specific circumstances of the parties.
 
 
 
(2)无论哪一方提出的离婚,下列情形人民法院不予受理:
 
(2) The people's court shall not accept divorce proposed by either party under the following circumstances:
 
 
 
①调解和好,没有新情况、新理由,六个月内又起诉的;
 
(1) Mediation is reconciled, without new circumstances or reasons, and prosecution is instituted within six months;
 
 
 
②原告自动撤诉,没有新情况、新理由,六个月内又起诉的;
 
(2) The plaintiff withdraws the lawsuit automatically without new circumstances or reasons, and prosecutes again within six months;
 
 
 
③按撤诉处理的离婚案件,没有新情况、新理由,六个月内又起诉的。
 
(3) divorce cases dealt with according to withdrawal of lawsuits, without new circumstances or reasons, are prosecuted again within six months.
 
 
 
(3)现役军人作为普通公民,其离婚一样受到上述限制,然而由于其特殊的性质,法律作出了另一个限制,即现役军人的配偶要求离婚,须得军人同意,军人一方有重大过错的除外。
 
(3) Active servicemen, as ordinary citizens, are subject to the same restrictions on their divorce. However, due to their special nature, another restriction is imposed by law, that is, the spouse of active servicemen requests divorce with the consent of the servicemen, except for the serious fault of the servicemen.
 
 
 
2、提起离婚诉讼,法院判决准予离婚的依据是夫妻感情破裂。根据《婚姻法》第三十二条相关规定,有下列情形之一,调解无效的,应准予离婚:
 
2. To initiate divorce proceedings, the court's decision to grant divorce is based on the breakdown of husband and wife's feelings. According to the relevant provisions of Article 32 of the Marriage Law, divorce shall be granted if mediation is invalid under one of the following circumstances:
 
 
 
(1)重婚或有配偶者与他人同居的;
 
(1) bigamy or cohabitation of a spouse with another person;
 
 
 
(2)实施家庭暴力或虐待、遗弃家庭成员的;
 
(2) committing domestic violence or abusing or abandoning family members;
 
 
 
(3)有赌博、吸毒等恶习屡教不改的;
 
(3) Having bad habits such as gambling and drug addiction that are persistently taught;
 
 
 
(4)因感情不和分居满二年的;
 
(4) Those who have been separated for two years due to emotional discord;
 
 
 
(5)其他导致夫妻感情破裂的情形。
 
(5) Other situations that lead to the breakdown of husband and wife's feelings.
 
 
 
一方被宣告失踪,另一方提出离婚诉讼的,应准予离婚。
 
If one party is declared missing and the other party brings a divorce lawsuit, divorce shall be granted.
 
 
 
无论是协议离婚还是诉讼离婚,这些其实都属于《婚姻法》中明确规定的法定离婚方式。需要注意的是,我国并不存在自动离婚的情况,不管怎样夫妻要解除婚姻关系的,就必须要按照规定办理了手续才行,否则的话即使双方以后都分开生活,但实际还是属于夫妻关系。
 
Whether it is agreement divorce or litigation divorce, these are in fact the legal divorce mode specified in the Marriage Law. It should be noted that there is no automatic divorce in China. In order to dissolve the marital relationship, the couple must go through the formalities according to the regulations. Otherwise, even if both parties live separately in the future, they are still in the marital relationship.


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